Age of Empires

Alternative title(s)
Antiquity gameEAG
ReleaseOct 15, 1997
DeveloperEnsemble Studios
Platform(s)Macintosh, Windows, Windows Mobile
ModeSingle-player, multiplayer
GenreStrategy game; empire-building
SettingAllows the player to play as a Greek, Minoan, MacedonianDLC and RomanDLC civilization
Notable charactersB
DLCThe Rise of Rome (1998)

Age of Empires: Definitive Edition was released in 2018, developed by Forgotten Empires. This remaster includes the Rise of Rome expansion pack.


André, L-N.; Lécole-Solnychkine, S. (2011). ‘La référence à l’antique dans les jeux vidéo : Paysages et structures mythologiques’ in S. Rufat & H. Ter Minassian (eds.), Les jeux vidéo comme objet de recherche. Paris: Questions théoriques, 104-22.

André, L-N.; Lécole-Solnychkine, S. (2013). ‘L’antiquité vidéoludique, une resurrection virtuelle?’ in Nouvelle revue d’esthétique 2013/1: 11, 87-98.

André, L-N. (2016). Game of Rome. Paris: Passage(s).

Audi, G. M. (2017). A linguagem dos videogames: sintaxe dos jogos de plataforma single player de 1980 a 2015. Doctoral thesis.

Bièvre-Perrin, F. (2020). ‘L’Antiquité jouée : culture classique et jeux vidéo’ in F. Bièvre-Perrin (ed.), Antiquipop. Lyon: online.

Chapman, A. (2016). Digital Games as History. How Videogames Represent the Past and Offer Access to Historical Practice. New York, London: Routledge. (Ch. 1. ‘Introduction’; Ch. 4. ‘Time and Space’)

Chapman, A. (2020). ‘Epilogue: Quo Vadis Historical Game Studies and Classical Receptions? Moving Two Fields Forward Together’ in C. Rollinger (ed.), Classical Antiquity in Video Games. New York: Bloomsbury, 233-252.

Clare, R. (2018). ‘Ancient Greece and Rome in Videogames: Representation, Player Processes, and Transmedial Connections’. Doctoral Thesis.

Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S.; Smith, J. H. (2000). Den digitale leg — om børn og computerspil. Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag. (Ch. 1 “Computerspil og gerner”; Ch. 3. “Effekten og indivitet”; Ch. 4 “Leg, computerspil og faellesskaber”)

Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S.; Smith, J.H.; Tosca, S.P. (2016). Understanding Video Games. The Essential Introduction. Third Edition. New York: Routledge. (Ch. 3 ‘What Is a Game?’; Ch. 4 ‘History’; Ch. 7 ‘Narrative’).

Elliott, A.B.R.; Kapell, M.W. (2013). ‘Introduction: To Build a Past That Will “Stand the Test of Time”–Discovering Historical Facts, Assembling Historical Narratives’ in M.W. Kapell & A.B.R. Elliott (eds.), Playing with the Past. Digital Games and the Simulation of History. New York, London: Bloomsbury, 1-29.

Flegler, A. (2020). ‘The Complexities and Nuances of Portraying History in Age of Empires‘ in C. Rollinger (ed.), Classical Antiquity in Video Games. New York: Bloomsbury, 205-215.

Gardner, A. (2007). ‘The past as playground. The ancient world in video game representation’ in T. Clack & M. Brittain (eds.), Archaeology and the Media. London: UCL Press, 255-72.

Kapell, M.W.; Elliott, A.B.R. (2013). ‘Conclusion: Playing at True Myths, Engaging with Authentic Histories’ in M.W. Kapell & A.B.R. Elliott (eds.), Playing with the Past. Digital Games and the Simulation of History. New York, London: Bloomsbury, 357-369.

McCall, J. (2020). ‘The Historical Problem Space Framework: Games as a Historical Medium’ in Game Studies 20 (3).

Pearce, C. (2004). ‘Towards a game theory of game’ in N. Wardrip-Fruin & P. Harrigan (eds.), First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. Cambridge, London: The MIT Press, 143-153.

Pearce, C. (2005). ‘Theory Wars: An Argument Against Arguments in the so-called Ludology/Narratology Debate’ in DiGRA ’05 – Proceedings of the 2005 DiGRA International Conference: Changing Views: Worlds in Play 3, 1-6.

Reinhard, A. (2018). Archaeogaming. An Introduction to Archaeology in and of Video Games. New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books. (Ch. 4. ‘Material Culture of the Immaterial’)

Rollinger, C. (2016). ‘Phantasmagorien des Krieges: Authentizitätsstrategien, affektive Historizität und der Antike Krieg im modernen Computerspiel‘ in A. Ambühl (ed.), Krieg der Sinne — Die Sinne im Krieg. Kriegdarstellungen im Spannungsfeld zwischen antiker und moderner Kultur / War of the Sense — The Senses in War. Interactions and tensions between representations of war in classical and modern culture thersites 4, 313-341.

Saura-Ziegelmeyer, A. (2018). ‘L’Antiquité et les jeux vidéo : représentations sonores’ in F. Bièvre-Perrin & É. Pampanay (eds.), Antiquipop. La reference à l’Antiquité dans la culture populaire contemporaine. Lyon [online]: MOM Editions, 175-186.

Schmidt, S.; Rassalle, T. (2020). ‘The roles we play in history: Narratives about women in historical strategy games’. Presented at the Interactive Pasts Conference Online 2, 5-6 November 2020. 

Truman, S.; Rapp, N.; Roth, D.; von Mammen, S. (2018). ‘Rethinking real-time strategy games for virtual reality‘ in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG ’18). New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 6 pp.

Van Nuenen, T. (2018). ‘Touring the Animus: Assassin’s Creed and Ludotopical Movement’ in Loading… The Journal of the Canadian Game Studies Association 10 (17), 22-39.

Wainwright, A. M. (2014). ‘Teaching Historical Theory through Video Games’ in The History Teacher 47 (4), 579-612.

Watrall, E. (2002). ‘Digital pharaoh: Archaeology, public education and interactive entertainment’ in Public Archaeology 2 (3), 163-169.

Watrall, E. (2002). ‘Interactive Entertainment as Public Archaeology’ in SAA Archaeological Record 2 (2), 37-39.

Additional keywords

history, real-time

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: